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Wired Science. Arhivat din original la 4 septembrie USA Today. Arhivat din original la 26 iulie Arhivat din original la 19 octombrie The Washington Post.
Arhivat din original la 12 noiembrie Arhivat din original la 14 septembrie CICLOPS web site. Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems. CICLOPS web site Press release.
Science NASA. Arhivat din original la 19 august Science News. Arhivat din original la 22 august Saturn Ring Plane Crossings of — Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Arhivat din original la 21 martie Arhivat din original la 22 aprilie Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
Bibcode : RSPTA. Imaginova Corp. The Greek name of the planet Saturn is Kronos. The Titan Cronus was the father of Zeus , while Saturn was the Roman God of agriculture.
The Popular Science Monthly : Journal of Scientific Exploration. Religion in China: universism. American lectures on the history of religions.
Putnam's Sons. The Japanese numbers game: the use and understanding of numbers in modern Japan. The passing of Korea. The Denver Astronomical Society.
Arhivat din original la 16 iulie Arhivat din original la 26 ianuarie Arhivat din original la 18 iulie Arhivat din original la 23 iulie Popular Astronomy.
Bibcode : PA Astrophysical Journal. Mission Descriptions. Arhivat din original la 30 ianuarie The Planetary Society. Bibcode : Natur.
ScienceDaily LLC. Arhivat din original la 28 august Arhivat din original la 11 august Arhivat din original la 5 septembrie The Daily Galaxy.
Arhivat din original la 6 august Arhivat din original la 3 mai Arhivat din original la 11 noiembrie Cassini Solstice Mission. Arhivat din original la 7 august The New York Times.
La Repubblica. Classical Astronomy. Arhivat din original la 5 noiembrie Georgia Journal of Science. Saturn , second largest planet of the solar system in mass and size and the sixth nearest planet in distance to the Sun.
In the night sky Saturn is easily visible to the unaided eye as a non-twinkling point of light. When viewed through even a small telescope, the planet encircled by its magnificent rings is arguably the most sublime object in the solar system.
As the farthest of the planets known to ancient observers, Saturn also was noted to be the slowest-moving. At a distance from the Sun that is 9. The Italian astronomer Galileo in was the first to observe Saturn with a telescope.
Hypothetically, Saturn would float in an ocean large enough to hold it. Both Saturn and Jupiter resemble stars in that their bulk chemical composition is dominated by hydrogen.
Like the other giant, or Jovian, planets—Jupiter, Uranus , and Neptune —Saturn has extensive systems of moons natural satellites and rings, which may provide clues to its origin and evolution as well as to those of the solar system.
The greatest advances in knowledge of Saturn, as well as of most of the other planets, have come from deep-space probes. Four spacecraft have visited the Saturnian system: Pioneer 11 in , Voyager s 1 and 2 in the two years following, and, after almost a quarter-century, Cassini-Huygens , which arrived in Saturn orbits the Sun at a mean distance of 1,,, km million miles.
Its closest distance to Earth is about 1. Saturn seen from the vicinity of Earth thus always appears nearly fully illuminated.
Only deep space probes can provide sidelit and backlit views. The tilt gives Saturn seasons, as on Earth, but each season lasts more than seven years.
In the short intervals when Earth crosses the ring plane, the rings are all but invisible. At the time of the Voyager encounters, radio outbursts from Saturn, apparently related to small irregularities in the magnetic field, showed a period of 10 hours On the other hand, if the material came primarily from micrometeoroid influx, the age would be closer to a billion years.
They are translucent, suggesting they are temporary aggregates of ice boulders a few meters across. Esposito believes this to be the basic structure of the Saturnian rings, particles clumping together, then being blasted apart.
Research based on rates of infall into Saturn favors a younger ring system age of hundreds of millions of years. Ring material is continually spiraling down into Saturn; the faster this infall, the shorter the lifetime of the ring system.
One mechanism involves gravity pulling electrically charged water ice grains down from the rings along planetary magnetic field lines, a process termed 'ring rain'.
The densest parts of the Saturnian ring system are the A and B Rings, which are separated by the Cassini Division discovered in by Giovanni Domenico Cassini.
Along with the C Ring, which was discovered in and is similar in character to the Cassini Division, these regions constitute the main rings.
The main rings are denser and contain larger particles than the tenuous dusty rings. The latter include the D Ring, extending inward to Saturn's cloud tops, the G and E Rings and others beyond the main ring system.
The narrow F Ring, just off the outer edge of the A Ring, is more difficult to categorize; parts of it are very dense, but it also contains a great deal of dust-size particles.
Notes: 1 Names as designated by the International Astronomical Union , unless otherwise noted. Broader separations between named rings are termed divisions , while narrower separations within named rings are called gaps.
The D Ring is the innermost ring, and is very faint. In , Voyager 1 detected within this ring three ringlets designated D73, D72 and D68, with D68 being the discrete ringlet nearest to Saturn.
The C Ring is a wide but faint ring located inward of the B Ring. It was discovered in by William and George Bond , though William R.
Dawes and Johann Galle also saw it independently. William Lassell termed it the "Crepe Ring" because it seemed to be composed of darker material than the brighter A and B Rings.
Its vertical thickness is estimated at 5 m, its mass at around 1. The km wavelength spiral corrugations first seen in the D Ring were observed during Saturn's equinox of to extend throughout the C Ring see above.
The Colombo Gap lies in the inner C Ring. This ringlet is also called the Titan Ringlet as it is governed by an orbital resonance with the moon Titan.
The Maxwell Gap lies within the outer part of the C Ring. It also contains a dense non-circular ringlet, the Maxwell Ringlet.
There are wave-like structures in the middle of both rings. The B Ring is the largest, brightest, and most massive of the rings. Its thickness is estimated as 5 to 15 m and its optical depth varies from 0.
The B Ring contains a great deal of variation in its density and brightness, nearly all of it unexplained. These are concentric, appearing as narrow ringlets, though the B Ring does not contain any gaps.
In places, the outer edge of the B Ring contains vertical structures deviating up to 2. This compares to a mass for Mimas of Until , the structure of the rings of Saturn was explained as being caused exclusively by the action of gravitational forces.
Then images from the Voyager spacecraft showed radial features in the B Ring , known as spokes ,   which could not be explained in this manner, as their persistence and rotation around the rings was not consistent with gravitational orbital mechanics.
The leading theory regarding the spokes' composition is that they consist of microscopic dust particles suspended away from the main ring by electrostatic repulsion, as they rotate almost synchronously with the magnetosphere of Saturn.
The precise mechanism generating the spokes is still unknown, although it has been suggested that the electrical disturbances might be caused by either lightning bolts in Saturn's atmosphere or micrometeoroid impacts on the rings.
The spokes were not observed again until some twenty-five years later, this time by the Cassini space probe.
The spokes were not visible when Cassini arrived at Saturn in early Some scientists speculated that the spokes would not be visible again until , based on models attempting to describe their formation.
Nevertheless, the Cassini imaging team kept looking for spokes in images of the rings, and they were next seen in images taken on 5 September The spokes appear to be a seasonal phenomenon, disappearing in the Saturnian midwinter and midsummer and reappearing as Saturn comes closer to equinox.
Suggestions that the spokes may be a seasonal effect, varying with Saturn's In , during equinox, a moonlet embedded in the B ring was discovered from the shadow it cast.
It was discovered in by Giovanni Cassini at the Paris Observatory using a refracting telescope that had a 2. However, Voyager discovered that the gap is itself populated by ring material bearing much similarity to the C Ring.
The inner edge of the Cassini Division is governed by a strong orbital resonance. Ring particles at this location orbit twice for every orbit of the moon Mimas.
Many of the other gaps between ringlets within the Cassini Division, however, are unexplained. The Huygens Gap is located at the inner edge of the Cassini Division.
It contains the dense, eccentric Huygens Ringlet in the middle. This ringlet exhibits irregular azimuthal variations of geometrical width and optical depth, which may be caused by the nearby resonance with Mimas and the influence of the eccentric outer edge of the B-ring.
There is an additional narrow ringlet just outside the Huygens Ringlet. The A Ring is the outermost of the large, bright rings. Its inner boundary is the Cassini Division and its sharp outer boundary is close to the orbit of the small moon Atlas.
Its optical depth varies from 0. Similarly to the B Ring, the A Ring's outer edge is maintained by orbital resonances, albeit in this case a more complicated set.
It is primarily acted on by the resonance with Janus and Epimetheus , with other contributions from the resonance with Mimas and various resonances with Prometheus and Pandora.
These waves are described by the same physics that describes the spiral arms of galaxies. Spiral bending waves, also present in the A Ring and also described by the same theory, are vertical corrugations in the ring rather than compression waves.
In April , NASA scientists reported observing the possible formative stage of a new moon near the outer edge of the A Ring.
Images from the Cassini probe have shown that there are at least three thin, knotted ringlets within the gap. Johann Encke himself did not observe this gap; it was named in honour of his ring observations.
The gap itself was discovered by James Edward Keeler in The Encke Gap is a gap because it is entirely within the A Ring.
There was some ambiguity between the terms gap and division until the IAU clarified the definitions in ; before that, the separation was sometimes called the "Encke Division".
The small moon Daphnis , discovered 1 May , orbits within it, keeping it clear. The Keeler gap was discovered by Voyager , and named in honor of the astronomer James Edward Keeler.
Keeler had in turn discovered and named the Encke Gap in honor of Johann Encke. In , four tiny " moonlets " were found in Cassini images of the A Ring.
It is estimated that the A Ring contains thousands of such objects. Like the Cassini Division , the Roche Division is not empty but contains a sheet of material.
The F Ring is the outermost discrete ring of Saturn and perhaps the most active ring in the Solar System, with features changing on a timescale of hours.
While the traditional view has been that it is held together by two shepherd moons , Prometheus and Pandora , which orbit inside and outside it,  recent studies indicate that only Prometheus contributes to the confinement.
More recent closeup images from the Cassini probe show that the F Ring consists of one core ring and a spiral strand around it.
Since Prometheus orbits Saturn more rapidly than the material in the F ring, each new channel is carved about 3. In , further dynamism was detected, suggesting that small unseen moons orbiting within the F Ring are continually passing through its narrow core because of perturbations from Prometheus.
A faint dust ring is present around the region occupied by the orbits of Janus and Epimetheus , as revealed by images taken in forward-scattered light by the Cassini spacecraft in It contains a single distinctly brighter arc near its inner edge similar to the arcs in the rings of Neptune that extends about one sixth of its circumference, centered on the half-km diameter moonlet Aegaeon , which is held in place by a orbital resonance with Mimas.
These tiny particles are steadily eroded away by further impacts and dispersed by plasma drag. Over the course of thousands of years the ring gradually loses mass,  which is replenished by further impacts on Aegaeon.
A faint ring arc, first detected in September , covering a longitudinal extent of about 10 degrees is associated with the moon Methone.
The material in the arc is believed to represent dust ejected from Methone by micrometeoroid impacts. The confinement of the dust within the arc is attributable to a resonance with Mimas similar to the mechanism of confinement of the arc within the G ring.
A faint ring arc, first detected in June , covering a longitudinal extent of about 20 degrees is associated with the moon Anthe.
The material in the arc is believed to represent dust knocked off Anthe by micrometeoroid impacts. The confinement of the dust within the arc is attributable to a resonance with Mimas.
A faint dust ring shares Pallene's orbit, as revealed by images taken in forward-scattered light by the Cassini spacecraft in Its source is particles blasted off Pallene's surface by meteoroid impacts, which then form a diffuse ring around its orbital path.
The E Ring is the second outermost ring and is extremely wide; it consists of many tiny micron and sub-micron particles of water ice with silicates, carbon dioxide and ammonia.
In , the source of the E Ring's material was determined to be cryovolcanic plumes   emanating from the "tiger stripes" of the south polar region of the moon Enceladus.
Particles of the E Ring tend to accumulate on moons that orbit within it. The equator of the leading hemisphere of Tethys is tinted slightly blue due to infalling material.
This results in their surfaces being coated with bright material that smooths out features. In October , the discovery of a tenuous disk of material just interior to the orbit of Phoebe was reported.
The disk was aligned edge-on to Earth at the time of discovery. This disk can be loosely described as another ring. Although very large as seen from Earth, the apparent size of two full moons  , the ring is virtually invisible.
It was discovered using NASA 's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope ,  and was seen over the entire range of the observations, which extended from to times the radius of Saturn,  with calculations indicating that it may extend outward up to Saturn radii and inward to the orbit of Iapetus at 59 Saturn radii.
Phoebe orbits the planet at a distance ranging from to radii. The ring has a thickness of about 40 radii. This ring lies in the plane of Saturn's orbit, or roughly the ecliptic , and thus is tilted 27 degrees from Saturn's equatorial plane and the other rings.
The existence of the ring was proposed in the s by Steven Soter. Verbiscer and Michael F. Skrutskie of the University of Virginia and Douglas P.
Hamilton of the University of Maryland, College Park. Infall of this material causes a slight darkening and reddening of the leading hemisphere of Iapetus similar to what is seen on the Uranian moons Oberon and Titania but does not directly create the dramatic two-tone coloration of that moon.
This leaves a dark residue of "lag" material covering most of the equatorial region of Iapetus's leading hemisphere, which contrasts with the bright ice deposits covering the polar regions and most of the trailing hemisphere.
Saturn's second largest moon Rhea has been hypothesized to have a tenuous ring system of its own consisting of three narrow bands embedded in a disk of solid particles.
The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument MIMI observed a gentle gradient punctuated by three sharp drops in plasma flow on each side of the moon in a nearly symmetric pattern.
This could be explained if they were absorbed by solid material in the form of an equatorial disk containing denser rings or arcs, with particles perhaps several decimeters to approximately a meter in diameter.
A more recent piece of evidence consistent with the presence of Rhean rings is a set of small ultraviolet-bright spots distributed in a line that extends three quarters of the way around the moon's circumference, within 2 degrees of the equator.
The spots have been interpreted as the impact points of deorbiting ring material. Cassini image mosaic of the unlit side of the outer C Ring bottom and inner B Ring top near Saturn's equinox, showing multiple views of the shadow of Mimas.
The shadow is attenuated by the denser B ring. The Maxwell Gap is below center. A spiral density wave in Saturn's inner B Ring which forms at a orbital resonance with Janus.
The wavelength decreases as the wave propagates away from the resonance, so the apparent foreshortening in the image is illusory. Dark B Ring spokes in a low- phase-angle Cassini image of the rings' unlit side.
Left of center, two dark gaps the larger being the Huygens Gap and the bright from this viewing geometry ringlets to their left comprise the Cassini Division.
Pan 's motion through the A ring 's Encke Gap induces edge waves and non-self-propagating spiraling wakes  ahead of and inward of it. The other more tightly wound bands are spiral density waves.
Radially stretched 4x view of the Keeler Gap edge waves induced by Daphnis.Arhivat din original la 6 septembrie Discoveries by Huygens Centripetal acceleration Coupled oscillation Conception of the standardization of the temperature scale Early history of classical mechanics Early history of calculus Huygens' law Huygens' lemniscate Huygens' principle Huygens—Fresnel principle Huygens' construction Huygens' tritone Huygens' wavelet Dsds Verpasst wave theory Huygens—Steiner theorem Hypothesis of intelligent extraterrestrial life Isochrone curve tautochrone curve Foundations of differential geometry of curves mathematical notions of the evolute and involute of the curve Scientific foundations of horology Mathematical and physical investigations of properties of the pendulum Modern conception of centrifugal and centripetal forces Music theory of microtones 31 equal temperament Polarization of light Iceland spar Rings of Saturn Saw Reihe moon Theoretical foundations of wave Loki Marvel Universum Gespielt Von wave theory of light. The Huygens Gap is located at the inner edge of the Cassini Division. March Arhivat din original Saturn.Der 22 aprilie His hypothesis Miui Themes written up in De corpore saturni, in which he came close to suggesting the planet Saturn.Der a ring. Dragon Storm Great White Spot Hexagon Magnetosphere Rings. The F Ring is the outermost discrete ring of Saturn and perhaps the most active ring in the Solar System, with features changing on a timescale of hours. The rings are named Disjointed Stream Deutsch in the order they were discovered  A and B in by Giovanni Domenico CassiniC in by William Cranch Bond and his son George Phillips BondD in by Nikolai P. Arhivat din original la 5 septembrie Arhivat din original la 16 iulie William B. Immediately Wren recognised this as a better hypothesis than his own and De corpore saturni was never published. Home Science Saturn.Der Saturn planet. InGeneral Motors rebadged and reintroduced the discontinued Saturn Vue Castle Stream English the Chevrolet Captiva Sport. Mair began discussions of a "revolutionary new", small car project codenamed Saturn in June GM and Penske decided that they could Saturn.Der longer make übergangsfrisuren Von Kurz Auf Lang business case to distribute Saturn vehicles in Canada after the sale of the brand. Automotive marques of General Motors. Saturn wurde mit dem griechischen Titan Kronos identifiziert. Er wurde schon früh mit dem griechischen Kronos identifiziert. Alle 14,8 Jahre, also ungefähr jedes halbe Serien 2000 Kinder, passiert die Erde die Ringebene, so dass das Ringsystem nahezu unsichtbar wird. Es war die populärste und fröhlichste Feierlichkeit im antiken Rom man beschenkte Saturn.Der und bewirtete die Sklaven am eigenen Tisch. Bei Saturn finden Sie Markenprodukte zu dauerhaft tiefen Preisen. Angebote, Service, Beratung uvm. im Alle Kategorien; Alles für die Zeit zu Hause. Saturn ist eine deutsche Elektronikkette in Deutschland und Luxemburg. Mit Media Markt bildet es die Media-Saturn Holding, die dem Einzelhandelsunternehmen Ceconomy gehört, das aus der Metro Group ausgegliedert wurde. Derzeit gibt es Saturn (lateinisch Saturnus) ist in der römischen Mythologie der Gott der Aussaat. Er wurde schon früh mit dem griechischen Kronos identifiziert. Der Schattenwurf auf die Saturnoberfläche ist umso ausgeprägter, je mehr das.