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Leopold amassed a huge personal fortune by exploiting the natural resources of the Congo. At first, ivory was exported, but this did not yield the expected levels of revenue.
When the global demand for rubber exploded, attention shifted to the labor-intensive collection of sap from rubber plants. Abandoning the promises of the Berlin Conference in the late s, the Free State government restricted foreign access and extorted forced labor from the natives.
Abuses, especially in the rubber industry, included forced labour of the native population, beatings, widespread killings, and frequent mutilation when production quotas were not met.
I have just returned from a journey inland to the village of Insongo Mboyo. The abject misery and utter abandon is positively indescribable.
I was so moved, Your Excellency, by the people's stories that I took the liberty of promising them that in future you will only kill them for crimes they commit.
Estimates of the death toll range from one million to fifteen million,   since accurate records were not kept. Historians Louis and Stengers in stated that population figures at the start of Leopold's control are only "wild guesses", and that attempts by E.
Morel and others to determine a figure for the loss of population were "but figments of the imagination".
Adam Hochschild devotes a chapter of his book King Leopold's Ghost to the problem of estimating the death toll.
He cites several recent lines of investigation, by anthropologist Jan Vansina and others, that examine local sources police records, religious records, oral traditions, genealogies, personal diaries, and "many others" , which generally agree with the assessment of the Belgian government commission: roughly half the population perished during the Free State period.
Hochschild points out that since the first official census by the Belgian authorities in put the population at about 10 million, these various approaches suggest a rough estimate of a population decline by 10 million.
Smallpox epidemics and sleeping sickness also devastated the disrupted population. The mortality statistics were collected through the efforts of British consul Roger Casement , who found, for example, only survivors of the disease in Lukolela in Reports of outrageous exploitation and widespread human rights abuses led the British Crown to appoint their consul Roger Casement to investigate conditions there.
His extensive travels and interviews in the region resulted in the Casement Report , which detailed the extensive abuses under Leopold's regime.
In Britain, former shipping clerk E. Morel with Casement's support founded the Congo Reform Association , the first mass human rights movement.
Writer Arthur Conan Doyle also criticised the "rubber regime" in his work The Crime of the Congo , written to aid the work of the Congo Reform Association.
Doyle contrasted Leopold's rule with British rule in Nigeria , arguing that decency required those who ruled primitive peoples to be concerned first with their uplift, not how much could be extracted from them.
As Hochschild describes in King Leopold's Ghost , many of Leopold's policies, in particular those of colonial monopolies and forced labour, were influenced by Dutch practice in the East Indies.
International opposition and criticism from the Catholic Party , Progressive Liberals  and the Labour Party caused the Belgian parliament to compel the king to cede the Congo Free State to Belgium in The deal that led to the handover cost Belgium the considerable sum of This was used to discharge the debt of the Congo Free State and to pay out its bond holders as well as Leopold went to great lengths to conceal potential evidence of wrongdoing during his time as ruler of his private colony.
The entire archive of the Congo Free State was burned and he told his aide that even though the Congo had been taken from him, "they have no right to know what I did there".
On 17 December , Leopold II died at Laeken , and the Belgian crown passed to Albert I , the son of Leopold's brother, Philippe, Count of Flanders.
His funeral cortege was booed by the crowd  in expression of disapproval of his rule of the Congo. He was interred in the royal vault at the Church of Our Lady of Laeken in Brussels.
Attention to the Congo atrocities subsided in the years after Leopold's death. Statues of him were erected in the s at the initiative of Albert I, while the Belgian government celebrated his accomplishments in Belgium.
In , Louis Michel , a Belgian member of the European Parliament and former Belgian foreign minister, called Leopold II a "visionary hero.
Senator Pol Van Den Driessche replied, "[A] great visionary? Absolutely not. What happened then was shameful. If we measured him against 21st century standards, it is likely that Leopold would be hauled before the International Criminal Court in the Hague.
On 30 June, the 60th anniversary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo 's independence, King Philippe released a statement expressing his "deepest regret" for the wounds of the colonial past, and the "acts of violence and cruelty committed" in the Congo during colonisation  but did not explicitly mention Leopold's role in the atrocities.
Some activists accused him of not making a full apology. Leopold II remains a controversial figure in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
His statue in the capital Kinshasa known until as Leopoldville in his honor was removed after independence. Congolese culture minister Christophe Muzungu decided to reinstate the statue in He noted that the beginning of the Free State had been a time of some economic and social progress.
Several statues have been erected to honour the legacy of Leopold II in Belgium. Most of the statues date from the interwar period , the peak of colonial-patriotic propaganda.
The monuments were supposed to help get rid of the scandal after international commotion about the atrocities in the Congo Free State and to raise people's enthusiasm for the colonialism in Belgian Congo.
His controversial regime in the Congo Free State has motivated proposals for these statues to be removed. In early June , a majority in the Brussels Parliament requested a committee to be set up to 'decolonise the public sphere' in the Brussels Capital Region.
Leopold's sister became the Empress Carlota of Mexico. His first cousins included both Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and her husband Prince Albert , as well as King Fernando II of Portugal.
He had four children with Queen Marie-Henriette, of whom the youngest two have descendants living as of [update] :. Leopold also fathered two sons by Caroline Lacroix.
They were adopted in by Lacroix's second husband, Antoine Durrieux. Leopold in , by Franz Xaver Winterhalter. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Second King of the Belgians and Sovereign of the Congo Free State. King of the Belgians. Leopold II as Garter Knight, c. See list. Church of Our Lady of Laeken.
Marie Henriette of Austria. Caroline Lacroix disputed. Play media. Further information: Congo Free State. Further information: Lado Enclave and Battle of Rejaf.
Further information: Atrocities in the Congo Free State. Main article: Congo Free State propaganda war. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled List of statues of Leopold II of Belgium.
Discuss July Andrew Knight of St. Alexander Nevsky Knight of the White Eagle Knight of St. Olav , 13 July Tuscany : Grand Cross of St.
Ancestors of Leopold II of Belgium 8. Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 4. Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 9. Princess Sophie Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 2.
King Leopold I of Belgium Heinrich XXIV, Count Reuss of Ebersdorf 5. Countess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf Countess Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg 1.
King Leopold II of Belgium King Louis Philippe I of France King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies 7.
Princess Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria. Caricature of Leopold II.
The caption reads: A constitutional king. Cartoon depicting Leopold II offering gifts to German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Monarchy portal Belgium portal History portal Biography portal.
Confronting Genocide. The Independent. Retrieved 9 June The Guardian. Cambridge University Press. The Belgian Monarchy.
Retrieved 4 December Brussels: Racine. European Atrocity, African Catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State and its Aftermath. Abingdon, England: Routledge.
Journal of Pan African Studies. History Today. King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa.
Looking Back. Mandaluyong, Philippines: Anvil Publishing. Ends of British Imperialism. The Congo State: Or, The Growth of Civilisation in Central Africa.
Congo: W. The Scramble for Africa. Avon Books. Retrieved 1 December The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration and Exploitation of the World's Most Dramatic Rivers.
A Sign For Cain: An Exploration of Human Violence. Morel's History of the Congo Reform Movement. London: Clarendon.
Belgium and the Congo, — Archived from the original PDF on 27 March Retrieved 2 December Schorochoff" PDF. Retrieved 7 May New Statesman.
Retrieved 16 June New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 13 June The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 April San Francisco Chronicle.
African Studies Quarterly. Archived from the original on 18 June King Leopold's Ghost tells the story of the Congo with fresh and critical insights, bringing new analysis to this topic.
EU Observer. Retrieved 1 January BBC News. Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 7 June The Brussels Times. Het Laatste Nieuws in Dutch.
Moeten standbeelden van Leopold II en andere bedenkelijke historische figuren verdwijnen uit het straatbeeld?
De Morgen in Dutch. RTBF in French. Retrieved 19 June Le Soir in French. Bruzz in Dutch. Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 1 March Krant van West-Vlaanderen in Dutch.
NOS in Dutch. VRT NWS in Dutch. RTBF Info in French. Pursuing Whiteness in the Colonies: Private Memories from the Congo Freestate and German East Africa — Münster: Waxmann Verlag.
Retrieved 5 July De Tijd in Dutch. Retrieved 7 July Het Nieuwsblad in Dutch. Manceaux, Imprimeur-Libraire, ed.
Almanach de poche de Bruxelles et de ses faubourgs in French. Riddere af Elefantordenen, — in Danish. Syddansk Universitetsforlag.
Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: The Diary of H. The Shah of Persia during his tour through Europe in A.
Translated by James Redhouse. London: John Murray. Pro Phalaris in Portuguese. Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 17 October Notizia storica del nobilissimo ordine supremo della santissima Annunziata.
Sunto degli statuti, catalogo dei cavalieri in Italian. Eredi Botta. Retrieved 4 March Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 21 March Aronson, Theo : Defiant Dynasty: The Coburgs of Belgium , Bobbs-Merrill , Petringa, Maria: Brazza, A Life for Africa , Roger Louis and Jean Stengers: E.
Morel's History of the Congo Reform Movement , Clarendon Press Oxford, University College Dublin Press, Dublin: Lilliput Press, Roes, Aldwin South African Historical Journal.
Stanard, Matthew G. Selling the Congo: A history of European pro-empire propaganda and the making of Belgian imperialism U of Nebraska Press, Vanthemsche, Guy Vanthemsche, Guy 'The historiography of Belgian colonialism in the Congo" in C Levai ed.
The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. Peffer, John Visual Anthropology Review. Yale French Studies : 34— Weisbord, Robert G.
Journal of Genocide Research. Langbein, John H. January The Journal of Legal Studies. Gewald, Jan-Bart The International Journal of African Historical Studies.
Pavlakis, Dean Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History. Newspaper clippings about Leopold II of Belgium in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW.
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Cadet branch of the House of Wettin. Belgian royal princes. Generations are numbered by descent from King Leopold I of Belgium.
Crown Prince Louis-Philippe King Leopold II Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders. Prince Leopold, Duke of Brabant Prince Baudouin King Albert I.
King Leopold III Prince Charles, Count of Flanders. King Baudouin King Albert II Prince Alexandre. Princes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Crown Prince Louis Philippe King Leopold II Prince Philippe. King Edward VII Duke Alfred I Prince Arthur Prince Leopold. Prince Philipp Prince Ludwig August Tsar Ferdinand I of the Bulgarians.
Leopold played a particularly important role in moderating relations between the hostile Great Powers. In the later part of his reign, his role in managing relations between Great Britain and the French Empire of Napoleon III was particularly important.
Leopold was particularly known as a political marriage broker. He promoted the marriage of his niece, Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom , to his nephew, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Even before she succeeded to the throne, Leopold had been advising Victoria by letter, and continued to influence her after her accession.
In foreign policy, Leopold's principal object was the maintenance of Belgian neutrality. Despite pressure from the Great Powers, especially over the Crimean War —56 , Belgium remained neutral throughout the reigns of Leopold I and II.
They had four children:. Queen Louise-Marie died of tuberculosis on 11 October , aged At Leopold's request,  in his two sons were created Freiherr von Eppinghoven by his nephew, Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha ; in Arcadie was also created as Baronin von Eppinghoven.
Leopold died in Laeken near Brussels on 10 December , aged He is interred in the Royal Crypt at the Church of Notre-Dame de Laeken , next to Louise-Marie.
Belgian naval vessels named in his honour include the Leopold I , a frigate acquired by Belgium in His monogram features on the flag of the Flemish town of Leopoldsburg.
His likeness has also appeared on postage stamps and commemorative coins issued since his death. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
German prince who became the first King of the Belgians. King of the Belgians. Portrait by Nicaise De Keyser , See list. Church of Our Lady of Laeken.
Princess Charlotte of Wales. Louis Philippe, Crown Prince of Belgium Leopold II Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders Charlotte, Empress of Mexico.
See also: Belgian Revolution and Constitution of Belgium. Main article: Belgium in "the long nineteenth century". Austrian Empire : Knight of the Military Order of Maria Theresa ,  Grand Cross of St.
Andrew Knight of St. Alexander Nevsky , 21 October  Knight of St. Anna , 1st Class Knight of St. Januarius Grand Cross of St.
Ancestors of Leopold I of Belgium  8. Francis Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 4. Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 9.
Princess Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 2. Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 5.
Princess Sophie Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Princess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 1. Leopold I of Belgium Heinrich XXIX, Count Reuss-Ebersdorf 6.
Heinrich XXIV, Count Reuss-Ebersdorf Countess Sophie Theodora of Castell-Remlingen 3. Countess Augusta Reuss-Ebersdorf George August, Count of Erbach-Schönberg 7.
Countess Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg Countess Ferdinande Henriette of Stolberg-Gedern. Originally published by London County Council, London, ".
British History Online. Retrieved 13 August BAUER, Aus meinem Bühnenleben. Erinnerungen von Karoline Bauer , Berlin, — Eine coburgisch-englische Geschichte , Coburg, Arturo E.
The Coburgs of Europe. De kinderen van de koning: Alle erfgenamen van Leopold I in Dutch. House of Books. Freiherrlichen Häuser in German. Band XXI. The New York Times.
Retrieved 7 July Librairie polytechnique De Decq. Riddere af Elefantordenen, — in Danish. Syddansk Universitetsforlag.
Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: Coleccion completa de las leyes y demas disposiciones dictadas por la intervencion francesa, por el supremo poder ejecutivo provisional, y por el Imperio mexicano, con un apendice de los documentos oficiales mas notables y curiosos de la epoca.
Imprenta literaria. France-Iran: Quatre cents ans de dialogue [ France-Iran: Four hundred years of dialogue ] in French. Pro Phalaris in Portuguese.
Retrieved 28 November Notizia storica del nobilissimo ordine supremo della santissima Annunziata. Sunto degli statuti, catalogo dei cavalieri in Italian.
Eredi Botta. Retrieved 4 March Ascherson, Neal London: Granta. Carson, Patricia The Fair Face of Flanders Rev.
Ghent: E. Chastain, James. Encyclopedia of Ohio University. Encyclopedia of Revolutions. Retrieved 16 December La Monarchie Belge.
Archived from the original on 23 October Pirenne, Henri Histoire de Belgique in French. Brussels: Maurice Lamertin.
Wolmar, Christian London: Grove Atlantic. Polasky, Janet L. Oxford University Press. Subscription or UK public library membership required.
Monarchs of Belgium. Baron Surlet de Chokier Regent Leopold I Leopold II Albert I Leopold III Charles Prince Regent Baudouin Albert II Philippe.
Links to related articles. Belgian Revolution and the Independence of Belgium — King William I Prince William Ten Days' Campaign August Siege of Antwerp London Conference of Treaty of the Eighteen Articles Treaty of London Treaty of Maastricht Iron Rhine Treaty Martyrs' Square Congress Column Civic Guard Merit Medal Star of Honour Iron Cross Volunteers' Commemorative Cross.
Princes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Crown Prince Louis Philippe King Leopold II Prince Philippe. King Edward VII Duke Alfred I Prince Arthur Prince Leopold.
Prince Philipp Prince Ludwig August Tsar Ferdinand I of the Bulgarians. Prince Leopold Prince Baudouin King Albert I. Prince Albert Victor King George V Hereditary Prince Alfred Prince Arthur Duke Charles Edward I.
King Carlos I Infante Afonso. Prince Leopold Clement Prince Pedro Augusto Prince August Leopold Prince Joseph Ferdinand Prince Ludwig Gaston.
Tsar Boris III Prince Kiril. King Leopold III Prince Charles. King Edward VIII King George VI Prince Henry Prince George Prince John Prince Alastair.Neuer Abschnitt Family Guy Simpsons Folge Stream Media. All Titles TV Episodes Celebs Companies Keywords Advanced Search. How much of Cathrin Leopold's work have you seen? Cathrin Leopold is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Cathrin Leopold and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes. Cathrin Leopold is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Cathrin Leopold and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to . Chceš se technologicky podílet na vývoji Čtmbulgaria.com?Pokud ovládáš Python a PHP, jsi zodpovědný a rád se učíš novým věcem, pak hledáme přímo tebe!